0030 Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, commits suicide.

    1099 At the Battle of Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, route an Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem, which had already fallen to the Crusaders.

    1121 Battle of Didgori: the Georgian army under King David the Builder wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi

    1480 Battle of Otranto – Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam

    1508 Ponce de Le¢n arrives in Puerto Rico

    1624 Cardinal Richelieu was named chief minister of France by king Louis XIII.

    1762 The British capture Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.

    1791 Black slaves on the island of Santo Domingo rise up against their white masters.

    1863 Confederate raider William Quantrill leads a massacre of 150 men and boys in Lawrence, Kansas.

    1867 U.S. President Andrew Johnson sparked a move to impeach him when he defied Congress by suspending Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.

    1883 The last quagga dies in captivity at the Natura Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam

    1896 Gold is discovered near Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada. After word reaches the United States in June of 1897, thousands of Americans head to the Klondike to seek their fortunes.

    1898 The Spanish-American War was ended with the signing of the peace protocol. The U.S. acquired Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Hawaii was also annexed.

    1908 Henry Ford’s company builds the first Model T car

    1915 “Of Human Bondage,” by William Somerset Maugham, published

    1935 President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Social Security Bill.

    1955 Pres Eisenhower raises minimum wage from $0.75 to $1 an hour

    1961 The erection of the Berlin Wall begins, preventing access between East and West Germany.

    1976 About 3000 refugees are killed during a massacre at a Palestinian refugee camp

    1977 Steven Biko, leader of the black consciousness movement in South Africa, is arrested.

    1979 Massive book burnings by press censors begin in Iran.

    1981 IBM introduces its first Personal Computer (PC & PC-DOS version 1.0)

    1990 Iraq President Saddam Hussein says he is ready to resolve the Gulf crisis if Israel withdraws from occupied territories

    1992 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is concluded between the United States, Canada and Mexico, creating the world’s wealthiest trade bloc.

    1994 Major league baseball players went on strike rather than allow team owners to limit their salaries. The strike lasted for 232 days. As a result, the World Series was wiped out for the first time in 90 years.

    1998 Swiss banks agreed to pay $1.25 billion to settle lawsuits brought by Holocaust survivors and their heirs. The banks had kept millions of dollars deposited by Holocaust victims before and during World War II.

    2000 Russian Navy submarine K-141 Kursk explodes and sinks with all hands during military exercises in the Barents Sea.

    2004 The California Supreme Court voided the nearly 4,000 same-sex marriages that had been sanctioned in San Francisco earlier in the year.

    2013 Notorious Boston gangster James (Whitey) Bulger was found guilty of 31 of the 32 charges he faced, including murder, extortion, money laundering, drug dealing and possession of weapons.



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