1619 René Descartes has the dream that inspires his “Meditations on First Philosophy”

    1647 All Dutch-held areas of New York are returned to English control by the treaty of Westminster.

    1775 The U.S. Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress. The Marines went out of existence after the end of the Revolutionary War in April of 1783. The Marine Corps were formally re-established on July 11, 1798. This day is observed as the birth date of the United States Marine Corps.

    1782 In the last battle of the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark attacks Indians and Loyalists at Chillicothe, in Ohio Territory.

    1801 The U.S. state of Tennessee outlawed the practice of dueling.

    1871 Henry M. Stanley, journalist and explorer, found David Livingstone. Livingstone was a missing Scottish missionary in central Africa. Stanley delivered his famous greeting: “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

    1885 German engineer Gottlieb Daimler unveils the world’s first motorcycle

    1903 Windshield wiper patented

    1917 Forty-one US suffragettes are arrested protesting outside the White House.

    1941 Churchill promises to join the U.S. “within the hour” in the event of war with Japan.

    1952 U.S. Supreme Court upholds the decision barring segregation on interstate railways.

    1954 The Iwo Jima Memorial was dedicated in Arlington, VA.

    1971 Two women are tarred and feathered in Belfast for dating British soldiers, while in Londonderry, Northern Ireland a Catholic girl is also tarred and feathered for her intention of marrying a British soldier.

    1975 The iron ore freighter Edmund Fitzgerald breaks in half and sinks at the eastern end of Lake Superior–all 29 crew members perish.

    1980 CBS News anchor Dan Rather claimed he had been kidnapped in a cab. It turned out that Rather had refused to pay the cab fare.

    1982 In Washington, DC, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was opened to visitors.

    1993 The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Brady Bill, which called for a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases.

    1997 WorldCom and MCI Communications announce a merger, the largest in US history up to that time.

    1998 At the White House, “The Virtual Wall” website ( was unveiled. The site allows visitors to experience The Wall through the Internet.

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