1863 – U.S. President Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address as he dedicated a national cemetery at the site of the Civil War battlefield in Pennsylvania. https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/gettysburg-address
1274 – Mongol army lands at Hakata Bay in Japan during their first invasion attempt and are defeated; a typhoon destroys most of their fleet as they withdraw
1493 – Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico).
1521 – Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V’s pontifical, Spanish and German troops beat French forces and occupy Milan
1530 – “The Recess”, the final decree of the Diet of Augsburg signed by Charles V and Catholic princes reaffirming Catholic rites and principles (after departure of Protestant Princes)
1567 – Spanish Mendaña Expedition departs Callao, Peru, led by Alvaro de Mendaña de Neira and his uncle Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to explore the Pacific (1st Europeans to discover Solomon Islands)
1644 – First Protestant ministry society in New England
1776 – American Revolutionary War: US forces abandon Fort Lee, New Jersey and retreat to Pennsylvania after British and Hessian troops take Fort Washington, New York
1794 – Britain’s King George III signed the Jay Treaty. It resolved the issues left over from the Revolutionary War.
1850 – The first life insurance policy for a woman was issued. Carolyn Ingraham, 36 years old, bought the policy in Madison, NJ.
1861 – The first petroleum shipment (1,329 barrels) from the U.S. to Europe leaves Philadelphia, USA, for London, England on the Elizabeth Watts
1863 – U.S. President Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address as he dedicated a national cemetery at the site of the Civil War battlefield in Pennsylvania.
1872 – E.D. Barbour of Boston is awarded the first U.S. patent for the first ‘calculator’, an adding machine capable of printing totals and subtotals
1895 – The “paper pencil” was patented by Frederick E. Blaisdell.
1903 – Temperance activist Carrie Nation attempts to address the US Senate
1915 – Execution of Joe Hill (US labour activist)
1919 – The U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles with a vote of 55 in favor to 39 against. A two-thirds majority was needed for ratification.
1923 – The Oklahoma State Senate ousts Governor Walton for anti-Ku Klux Klan measures
1928 – “Time” magazine presented its cover in color for the first time. The subject was Japanese Emperor Hirohito.
1941 – World War II: Battle between HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran. The two ships sink each other off the coast of Western Australia, with the loss of 645 Australians and about 77 German seamen
1942 – Operation Uranus: Soviet offensive begins during Battle of Stalingrad, 1 million Soviet soldiers encircle the German Sixth Army
1943 – Janowska camp uprising, The concentration camp in occupied Poland was set up in 1941. In November 1943, in anticipation of the advancement of Soviet troops, the Nazis tried to evacuate the camp and used the inmates to remove traces of executions and mass killings in the past.
1944 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling $14 billion USD in war bonds to help pay for the war effort.
1950 – US General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes supreme commander of NATO-Europe
1953 – US Supreme Court rules (7-2) baseball is a sport not a business
1954 – Two automatic toll collectors were placed in service on the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey.
1959 – Ford Motor Co. announced it was ending the production of the unpopular Edsel.
1961 – Michael Rockefeller, son of New York governor Nelson Rockefeller, disappears in the jungles near Atsj, Papua New Guinea.
1969 – Apollo 12 astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean made man’s second landing on the moon.
1970 – Hafiz al-Assad seized power in Syria.
1977 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to set foot in Israel on an official visit.
1980 – CBS TV bans Calvin Klein’s jeans ad featuring Brooke Shields
1981 – U.S. Steel agreed to pay $6.3 million for Marathon Oil.
1985 – U.S. President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met for the first time as they began their summit in Geneva.
1990 – NATO and the Warsaw Pact signed a treaty of nonaggression.
1993 – The U.S. Senate approved a sweeping $22.3 billion anti-crime measure.
1994 – The U.N. Security Council authorized NATO to bomb rebel Serb forces striking from neighboring Croatia.
1997 – In Carlisle, IA, septuplets were born to Bobbi McCaughey. It was only the second known case where all seven were born alive.
1998 – The impeachment inquiry of U.S. President Clinton began.
1999 – In Istanbul, Turkey, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) concluded a two-day summit after adopting a new arms accord. During the conference, Russia was criticized for its military campaign against Chechnya’s separatist movement.
2001 – U.S. President George W. Bush signed the most comprehensive air security bill in U.S. history.
2002 – The U.S. government completed its takeover of security at 424 airports nationwide.
2003 – Eight competing designs for a memorial to the victims of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center were unveiled. One design would be built at the site of the World Trade Center.
2010 – New Zealand suffers its worst mining disaster since 1914 when the first of four explosions occurs at the Pike River Mine; 29 people are killed
2013 – 23 people are killed by a suicide bombing attack on the Iranian Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon
2017 – Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe refuses to resign in a TV speech after being ousted as leader of ruling ZANU-PF party
2018 – Ivanka Trump sent “hundreds” of emails from her personal account about government business, according to Washington Post report
2019 – As many as 106 have died over five days in protests across 21 Iranian cities according to Amnesty International, just 12 deaths reported by the government
2020 – Inquiry find “credible evidence” elite Australian troops unlawfully killed 39 Afghan civilians
2021 – US jury clears Kyle Rittenhouse (18) of murder for fatally shooting two people and injuring a third during racial justice protests in Kenosha, Wisconsin
REFERENCE: history.net, onthisday.com, thepeopleshistory.com, timeanddate.com, scopesys.com, on-this-day.com