1759 French Quebec surrendered to the British after the Sept. 13 battle on the Plains of Abraham, the last battle of the French and Indian Wars. French general Montcalm and British general Wolfe died in the fray.

    1789 Alexander Hamilton negotiated and secured the first loan for the United States. The Temporary Loan of 1789 was repaid on June 8, 1790 at the sum of $191,608.81.

    1793 George Washington lays the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol.

    1811 British East India Company force led by Baron Minto conquers Java, part of the Dutch East Indies, Stamford Raffles appointed lieutenant governor

    1812 Great Fire of Moscow burns out after 5 days, 75% of the city destroyed and 12,000 killed

    1850 Congress passes the second Fugitive Slave Bill into law (the first was enacted in 1793), requiring the return of escaped slaves to their owners.

    1862 After waiting all day for a Union attack which never came at Antietam, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins a retreat out of Maryland and back to Virginia.

    1872 Oscar II becomes King of Norway and Sweden

    1873 Government bond agent Jay Cooke & Co collapses, causing panic on Wall St, the start of the panic of 1873 and the Long depression

    1874 The Nebraska Relief and Aid Society is formed to help farmers whose crops were destroyed by grasshoppers swarming throughout the American West

    1914 The Irish Home Rule Bill becomes law, but is delayed until after World War I.

    1927 Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System made its debut with its network broadcast over 16 radio stations. The name was later changed to CBS.

    1945 1000 whites walk out of Gary Ind schools to protest integration

    1947 The Central Intelligence Agency officially comes into existence after being established by President Truman in July

    1960 Two thousand cheer Fidel Castro’s arrival in New York for the United Nations session.

    1975 Patty Hearst, granddaughter of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, is kidnapped by violent radical group SLA (Symbionese Liberation Army); she will later take part in some of the group’s militant activities and will be captured by FBI agents.

    1977 Voyager I takes first photo of Earth and the Moon together.

    1994 Haiti’s military leaders agreed to depart on October 15th. This action averted a U.S.-led invasion to force them out of power.

    1998 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is formed to coordinate unique identifying addresses for Websites worldwide.

    2001 First mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks. Five letters are sent to ABC, NBC, CBS, the New York Post and American Media, the publisher of the National Enquirer, from a Trenton, N.J. postmark.

    2006 Right wing protesters riot the building of the Hungarian Television in Budapest, Hungary, one day after an audio tape was made public, in which Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány admitted he and his party lied during the 2006 general elections.

    2009 The US television soap opera The Guiding Light broadcasts its final episode, ending a 72-year run that began on radio.

    2019 US White House bars California and other states from setting their own emission standards



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